YONG in Nature 「庸」在大自然
The symbol YONG is painted in a way to represent the Chinese word 庸, Tibetan mantra OM, and a person practising yoga. It is expressed in calligraphic style and represents the fluidity of yoga.
YONG, moderation in the ordinary, balance of nature.
OM, wholeness, perfection and the infinite.
“It’s like a person practising yoga immersed in the mountains and waters in the nature where sea meets sky.”
Tibetan Cloisonne Filigree Thangka
Cloisonné Filigree Thangka combines the multi-step enamel processing used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items with the traditional method of making Tibetan Thangka paintings. Such Thangkas not only retain the design of traditional thangkas, but also integrate the Tibetan and Han Chinese cultures. Having undergone the ancient cloisonné-making process, images on the new genre of thangka look brighter, more crystal and elegant. Moreover, such thangkas are easier for storage.
Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects with colored material held in place or separated by metal strips or wire, normally of gold. Cloisonné first developed in the jewellery of the ancient Near East, and the earliest enamel all used the cloisonné technique, placing the enamel within small cells with gold walls. This had been used as a technique to hold pieces of stone and gems tightly in place since the 3rd millennium BC.
From Byzantium or the Islamic world the technique reached China in the 13–14th centuries; the first written reference is in a book of 1388, and the earliest datable pieces being from the reign of the Xuande Emperor (1425–35). The most elaborate and highly valued Chinese pieces are from the early Ming Dynasty, especially the reigns of the Xuande Emperor and Jingtai Emperor (1450–57), although 19th century or modern pieces are far more common. It is likely that China obtained knowledge of the technique from the middle east. In much Chinese cloisonné blue is usually the predominant colour, and the Chinese name for the technique, jingtailan 景泰藍 (“Jingtai blue ware”), refers to this, and the Jingtai Emperor.
Filigree is a form of intricate metalwork used in jewellery and other small forms of metalwork. In jewellery, it is usually of gold and silver, made with tiny beads or twisted threads, or both in combination, soldered together or to the surface of an object of the same metal and arranged in artistic motifs. Archaeological finds in ancient Mesopotamia indicate that filigree was incorporated into jewellery since 3,000 BC. The English word filigree is shortened from the earlier use of filigreen which derives from Latin “filum” meaning thread and “granum” grain, in the sense of small beads.
Thangkas are traditionally kept unframed and rolled up when not on display, mounted on a textile backing somewhat in the style of Chinese scroll paintings, with a further silk cover on the front. The early history of the form is more easily traced through these murals, which survive in greater numbers than the portable paintings which certainly once existed. Most thangka were commissioned by individuals, who were believed to acquire merit by doing so. They might then be given to a monastery or another individual, or retained for use by the commissioner.
The earliest survivals of Tibetan paintings on cloth are in some pieces from the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China. The “Library Cave” there was a repository of old or worn out manuscripts, paintings, prints, textiles and other items which was sealed off in the 11th century, after several centuries of deposits. Many of the paintings have Tibetan inscriptions or are in a style that can be recognized as Tibetan, as opposed to the dominant Han Chinese style and some pieces reflecting Indian styles. Though they are hard to date, it is thought that these pieces mainly come from a period c. 781–848 during Tang Dynasty rule.
Native Tibetan originated from Chamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region, China, Tsultrim Norbu has always had a fond passion in Thangka arts since young.
Officially began his Thangka journey in 2000 through painting Thangka in Tibetan Buddhism temples, he then became apprentice of Miansa Thangka master Qu Xiong Ze Ren in 2005. In 2010, he mastered the craftsmanship of cloisonné filigree and thus developed his unique cloisonné filigree Thangka art style over the past ten years.
Norbu has taught traditional Thangka and cloisonné filigree Thangka to over 200 students at local schools in Yushu in 2010-2014. He opened his own Cloisonné Filigree Thangka studio in 2019, running his apprentice programme and Cloisonné Filigree Thangka art creation.
次成諾布，景泰藍掐絲唐卡畫師，生於西藏昌都，現居於青海玉樹。從小就與唐卡結緣，2000年始於寺院畫唐卡，2005年拜師學藝，師承曲雄澤仁”勉薩”畫派。 2010年學習景泰藍掐絲工藝，遂把兩傳統工藝結合，花了十年發展出獨有的景泰藍掐絲黑唐卡風格。 2010-2014年在玉樹當地學校教授傳統唐卡和景泰藍掐絲唐卡，學生超過200人。 2019年成立了自己的景泰藍掐絲唐卡工作室，教授學徒及製作景泰藍掐絲唐卡藝術作品。